What is BGA Reballing?

PCB Repair 
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Editorial Team - PCB Directory

Apr 24, 2020

The process of replacing all soldered balls on the chip ball grid array is called BGA Reballing. BGA or Ball Grid Array is a surface mount package that has an array/grid of metal alloy balls (Tin/ Silver/ Lead/ Copper) at the bottom of a package which is soldered on to a printed circuit board to provide an electrical connection. This package type requires less space than other package types as all the interconnection pins are below the package and not on the side. This allows ICs using this package type of have more interconnects using less space on the Printed Circuit Board. In addition to space, the part of the Semiconductor die/IC is shorter thereby resulting in better performance at high speeds.

BGA Reballing is performed due to the below-listed reasons:

  • Overuse of the PCB board: Over time, the solder joints between the chip and the PCB become loose, which result in malfunctioned PCB.
  • Technology Upgrade: Based on the technology advancements, sometimes the BGA chip also requires an upgrade.
  • Faulty BGA Chip: A faulty BGA chip requires an instant fix that is why sometimes, need of reballing pops up.
  • Heating Issues: When a BGA chip gets heated, it melts the underneath solder ball, which in turn creates the solder bridge.

The entire BGA repair or reballing process involves component removal, cleaning, deballing, and reballing. 

Here is a step by step process for BGA Reballing:

Step 1: Component Removal from PCB: Remove the associated BGA component. To do this it is important to pre-heat the PCB and then apply heat to the top of the BGA component that needs to be removed, until the solder become molten. Once this happens, the component can be removed/lifted by using a vacuum. 

http://iconnect007.com/articlefiles/60375-0911SMTenlfinetech2.gif

Step 2: Deballing: Apply a water soluble paste on the balls and remove them by using a proper solder blade. Make sure that the surface is flat without any bumps.

Step 3: Clean the deballed part: Clean the PCB surface by using a solder remover like isopropyl alcohol.

Step 4: Apply Paste Flux: Inspect the PCB for scratches and lifted pads and apply a water soluble paste flux.

Step 5: Attach Pre-formed Solder Balls: Place pre-formed solder balls on the PCB.

Step 6: Component placement: Fix the BGA component on the ball array and place it in a reflow oven.

Step 7: Check whether the balls are transferred to the device or not: Take it out from the oven and remove the BGA preform while inspecting that all the balls have transferred to the device. Now, inspect the device thoroughly for the set standards.

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